Biosdocumenten Edit

17/01/2019 Edit

Jacquemyn (Oral):

  1. What is the difference between retrospective and prospective perturbation analysis? Explain with an example.
  2. How can you use perturbation analysis to check if management interventions on an invasive species are effective?
  3. Can you also use retrospective perturbation analysis to check this?


  1. Explain the importance of direct effects and risk effects on the population dynamics of elk and wolves (figure is given with post-birth rates and winter rates).
  2. What is a funnel analysis? How does it work and what are the conclusions? (Give figure and associated statistics)
  3. 4 questions about the Pleisser article.

De Meester:

  1. Give the four paradigms of meta-community ecology. Relate this to the microbial community composition. How does this relates to the "everything is everywhere" hypothesis in microbial ecology
  2. Explain isotopic baselines. Why are they important? Give three examples of research where isotopic baselines can be used.
  3. Temperature is important in determining species abundance and dispersal. Explain from first principles.

30/08/2018 Edit


  • How to detect file drawer problem?
  • 7 questions about the paper 'The fear of being eaten reduces energy transfer in a simple food chain'


  • How to calculate a sensitivity matrix?
  • Sensitivity matrix are used in different ways in prospective and retrospective perturbation analyse, explain.
  • Difference between pro en retrospective.

De Meester

  • Interpretation of spatial signal.
  • Temperature is important in determining species abundance and dispersal. Explain from first principles.
  • Stoichiometry: How do organisms maintain their elemental composition? Why does stoichiometry differs among organisms? Can you link this to life history?

25/01/2018 Edit

Stoks (written)

  • Explain Qb
  • Explain figure about decrease in elk calves and wolf presence
  • Questions about article 3

Jacquemyn (oral)

  • Give 2 examples of interference
  • Explain statistical tools to counter interference

De Meester (oral)

  • Metabolic theory and effect of climate change
  • Interpretations of significant spatial signal
  • Examples of isotopic applications. Explain isotopic baselines
  • Bacterial community explained by strong local factor

18/01/2018 Edit

Jacquemin (written)

  • biotic interaction - influences on population dynamics. Give two examples
  • matrix population models - determine importance of these interactions (perturbation analyse)

Stoks (oral)

  • QB (formula is given)
  • relative importance of risk and direct effect (linear and curved trade off curves)
  • article of damsel bugs and pea aphids (three treatments, statistics, fecundity, bottom up and top down, prey-predator interaction,...)

De Meester (oral)

  • Patch dynamics (trade-off between dispersal and competiton)
  • Difference between micro and macro-organisms (spatial and temporal)
  • Three application of isotopes (migration, food web and euthropication)
  • Stoichometry and life history (P content- growth rate - RNA)

06/09/2017 Edit

Stoks (oral)

  • Which two methods can be used to detect a file drawer problem?
  • Questions about paper 'fear of being eaten...'

De Meester (written)

  • How to interpret a spatial signal?
  • Temperature is important in determining species abundance and dispersal. Explain from first principles
  • How do organisms maintain their elemental composition? Can you link this to selection strategies?

Jacquemin (written)

  • Plants interact with many different species. Examples? Interactions?
  • How can matrix population models be of use in determining the impacts of different interactions?

27/01/2014 Edit

Stoks (oral)

  • Which two methods can be used to detect a file drawer problem?
  • Five questions about the paper on damselbugs and aphids (figure 1 was given)?

De Meester (oral)

  • How to interpret a spatial signal?
  • Three applications about stable isotopes and explain isotopic baseline

Honnay (written)

  • How can you close the yield gap using the components of aggrobiodiversity?

Jacquemyn (written)

  • Isolation barriers: pre- and postzygotic mechanisms
  • which calculations do you need for total, absolute and relative contributions + give an example

23/01/2014 Edit

Jacqemyn (oral):

  • The orchids are a very large family, explain the different models of speciation we have seen and give an example for each.

Stoks (oral):

  • Explain, using figures (!), the relative importance of direct and risk effects.
  • Questions about the paper on active and sit-and-pursue predators (hypothesis, how did they test it, conclusions, fail-safe number, ...)

De Meester:

  • Different paradigms of metacommunity theory, how does this relate to body size. How can you apply this to microbial communities?


  • Definition of Crop Wild Relatives and give two examples.
  • Discuss extensively: 'The in situ preservation of Crop Wild Relatives is to be preferred because of the free aspect of evolution" (or something like that)


Jacqemyn (oral): + Honnay 

  • orchid mycorrhizal fungi how do they act as post-zygote reproductive barriers (bit more explanations but this what I can remember). also give an example. (vb. orchids)

Stoks (oral):

  • equation of QB: explain and what is it for.
  • explain the relative importance of direct and risk effect (draw the graphs and explain)
  • questions about the article with the meta-analysis

De Meester:

  • what can isotopes learn for ecology and what are isotopic baselines
  • describe the 4 metacommunity paradigms and how does this relates to the "everything is everywhere" hypothesis in microbial ecology 

26/01/2012 am Edit

Jacqemyn (oral):

  • Due to invasive species, the native population of an organism decreases. How can you use matrix models to give good guidelines on how to stop the decrease of the native species and halt the fast expansion of the invasive species.

Stoks (oral):

  • Define: Meta-analysis & fail-safe number
  • What is the relative importance of direct killing and risk effects?
  • 7 questions about one of the papers (variables? how analysed?...)

De Meester

  • Define the 4 metacommunity paradigms.
  • How are they in microbial communities and how does this relate to 'everything is everywhere'
  • How are the different isotopes distributed in the life cycle of an ecosystem. Highlight the importance of the distribution on ecology.


  • Give 2 examples of nature management where genetic differentiation/erosion can be present.
  • Clearly explain the mechanics of the genetic differentiation & erosion.

26/01/2012 pm Edit

Jacquemyn (oral):

  • What is the difference between prospective and retropective perturbation analysis? How can you apply this to exotic species?

Honnay (written):

  • What are the problems with ex situ conservation?

De Meester (oral):

  • Evolution can take place on a short time scale. What are the implications to ecology and how does this change the classic view on conservation. (tell him a summary about what he told us during his class on 'eco-evolutionary dynamics')
  • What is the isotopic baseline in relation to research on food webs?

Stoks (written):

  • Explain:
    • Sequential Bonferroni test
    • Hedges' d
  • Formule N(t+1) = (rNt / 1+bNt^c) - aNtPt is given. How can you similate (a) a stronger consumptive effect and (b) increasing risk effects?
  • Give 2 methods to detect a file-drawer problem?

30/01/12 Edit

Stoks (written):

  • Explain density mediated indirect effect and another term I've forgotten
  • Formule of Qb : what does this mean and if it is significant, what does it indicate ?
  • Graphic of Elks and wolves in Yellowstone, you have to give the complete explanation as given in the course

Jacquemin (oral) :

  • What are randomization tests and how do they function in demographic analysis, give two examples (Bootstrap and Permutation)

De Meester (oral)

  • Draw the relation between habitat connectivity and trait adaption and relate to evolution and species sorting
  • Give the three fundamental principles on which general ecological predictions can be made and how does temperature relate to these ? (Metabolic theory, stochiometric stuff and O2)

Honnay (writtten) :

  • What are the pro and contra's of ex situ conservation? Discuss shortly.