- How to detect file drawer problem?

- 7 questions about the paper 'The fear of being eaten reduces energy transfer in a simple food chain'


- How to calculate a sensitivity matrix?

- Sensitivitay matrix are used in diffrent ways in prospective and retrospective perturbation analyse, explain.

- Difference between pro en retrospective.

De Meester

-Interpretation of spatial signal.

-Temperature is important in determining species abundance and dispersal. Explain from first principles.

-Stoichiometry: a) How do organisms maintain their elemental composition? b)Why does stoichiometry differs among organisms? c) Can you link this to life history?


Stoks (written) - Explain Qb - Explain figure about decrease in elk calves and wolf presence - Questions about article 3

Jacquemyn (oral) - Give 2 examples of interference - Explain statistical tools to counter interference

De Meester (oral) - Metabolic theory and effect of climate change - Interpretations of significant spatial signal - Examples of isotopic applications. Explain isotopic baselines - Bacterial community explained by strong local factor


Jacquemin (written)

- biotic interaction - influences on population dynamics. Give two examples

- matrix population models - determine importance of these interactons (perturbation analyse)

Stoks (oral)

- QB (formule is given)

- relative importance of risk and direct effect (linear and curved trade off curves)

- article of damsel bugs and pea aphids (three treatments, statistics, fecundity, bottom up and top down, prey-predator interaction,...)

De Meester (oral)

- patch dynamics (trade-off between dispersal and competiton)

- difference between micro and macro-organisms (spatial and temporal)

- three application of isotopes (migration, food web and euthropication)

- stoichometry and life history (P content- growth rate - RNA)


- Stoks (oral) 1. Which two methods can be used to detect a file drawer problem?

2. Questions about paper 'fear of being eaten...'

- De Meester (written)

1. How to interpret a spatial signal?

2. Temperature is important in determining species abundance and dispersal. Explain from first principles

3. How do organisms maintain their elemental composition? Can you link this to selection strategies?

- Jacquemin (written)

1. Plants interact with many different species. Examples? Interactions?

2. How can matrix population models be of use in determining the impacts of different interactions?


- Stoks (oral)

1. Which two methods can be used to detect a file drawer problem?

2. Five questions about the paper on damselbugs and aphids (figure1 was given)?

- De Meester (oral)

1. How to interpret a spatial signal?

2. Three applications about stable isotopes and explain isotopic baseline

- Honnay (written)

1. How can you close the yield gap using the components of agrobiodiversity?

-Jacquemyn (written)

1. Isolation barrieres: pre- and postzygotic mechanisms + which calculations do you need for total, absolute and relative contributions + give an example

23/01/2014 am

-Jacqemyn (oral): The orchids are a very large family, explain the different models of speciation we have seen and give an example for each.

-Stoks (oral):

1. Explain, using figures (!), the relative importance of direct and risk effects.

2. Questions about the paper on active and sit-and-pursue predators (hypothesis, how did they test it, conclusions, fail-safe number, ...)

-De Meester: Different paradigms of metacommunity theory, how does this relate to body size. How can you apply this to microbial communities?


1. Definition of Crop Wild Relatives and give two examples.

2. Discuss extensively: 'The in situ preservation of Crop Wild Relatives is to be preferred because of the free aspect of evolution" (or something like that)

Exam on 24-01-2013

- Part Jacqemyn (oral): + Honnay 

  • orchid mycorizal fungi how do they act as post-zygote reproductive barriers (bit more explanations but this what I can remember). also give an example. (vb. orchids)

- Part Stoks (oral):

  • equation of QB: explain and what is it for.
  • explain the relative importance of direct and risk effect (draw the graphs and explain)
  • questions about the article with the meta-analysis

-Part De Meester:

  • what can isotopes learn for ecology and what are isotopic baselines
  • describe the 4 metacommunity paradigims and how does this relates to the "everything is everywhere" hypothesis in microbial ecology 

Exam on 26-01-2012 a.m.

  • Part Jacqemyn (oral):

Due to invasive species, the native population of an organism decreases. How can you use matrix models to give good guidelines on how to stop the decrease of the native species and halt the fast expansion of the invasive species.

  • Part Stoks (oral):

-Define: Meta-analysis & fail-safe number

-What are the relative importances of direct killing and risk effects?

-7 questions about one of the papers (variables? how analysed?...)

  • Part Luc De Meester

-Define the 4 metacommunity paradigms. How are they in microbial communities and how does this relate to 'everything is everywhere'

-How are the different isotopes distributed in the life cycle of an ecosystem. Highlight the importance of the distribution on ecology.

  • Part Olivier Honnay

Give 2 examples of nature managment where genetic differentiation/erosion can be present. Clearly explain the mechanics of the genetic differentation & erosion.

26-01-2012 p.m.:

  • Part Jacquemyn (oral):

What is the difference between prospective and retropective perturbation analysis? How can you apply this to exotic species?

  • Part Honnay (written):

What are the problems with ex situ conservation?

  • Part De Meester (oral):

1. Evolution can take place on a short time scale. What are the implications to ecology and how does this change the classic view on conservation. (tell him a summary about what he told us during his class on 'eco-evolutionary dynamics')

2. What is the isotopic baseline in relation to research on food webs?

  • Part Stoks (written):

1. Explain:

- Sequential Bonferroni test

- Hedges' d

2. Formule N(t+1) = (rNt / 1+bNt^c) - aNtPt is given. How can you similate (a) a stronger consumptive effect and (b) increasing risk effects?

3. Give 2 methods to detect a file-drawer problem?

30-01-12 pm :

Part Stoks (written):

- explain density mediated indirect effect and another term I've forgotten

- Formule of Qb : what does this mean and if it is significant, what does it indicate ?

- Graphic of Elks and wolves in Yellowstone, you have to give the complete explanation as given in the course

Part Jacquemin (oral) :

- what are randomization tests and how do they function in demographic analysis, give two examples (Bootstrap and Permutation)

Part De Meester (oral)

- Draw the relation between habitat connectivity and trait adaption and relate to evolution and species sorting

- Give the three fundamental principles on which general ecological predictions can be made and how does temperature relate to these ? (Metabolic theory, stochiometric stuff and O2)

Part Honnay (writtten) :

What are the pro and contra's of ex situ conservation? Discuss shortly.